Project Team Rewards
Appendix II: Integrated Model of Work Motivation
The integrated model of work motivation by Locke & Latham (2004:390) integrates
the common motivation theories in one model. This model illustrated that rewards (in the
model called incentives) are only one of many factors influencing the employees
motivation. Summarised the model states that:
People have needs that they want to satisfy (Need Theories). As long as a need
is unsatisfied, it motivates people to do what is necessary to satisfy the need.
There is no need for money but money may help to satisfy needs. Accordingly,
rewards may make sense if the individual has an unsatisfied need that can be
satisfied by this reward (e.g. money).
The satisfaction of needs is valued differently by different people (Value
Theories). Subsequently, it depends on the individual how strong rewards are
valued and to what extent rewards make sense.
SMART Goals (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Timely) increase
the motivation of people to achieve these goals and hence overall performance
(for an example see Appendix III:
Goal Theory, p. 91). The theory does not
make any specific statements about rewards. It could be argued that if
performance is increased just by goal setting, rewards are not necessary. On the
other hand Armstrong (2002:68) argues that the Goal theory provides the
rationale for performance management and the basis for rewards.
The higher a persons belief to be able to achieve a goal, the higher the value of
the expected outcome, and the clearer the relationship between the outcome and
the persons action, the higher the motivation (Expectancy and Self Efficacy
Theory). These theories strongly support the use of rewards.
The fairer employees feel treated the higher their motivation (Equity Theory).
This theory cannot be used for a clear statement about rewards. Employees
might feel it was fair if they get more if they perform better. They also might