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Project Team Rewards
Literature Review
could further be divided into five categories (see Table 4). The external reward factors
were divided into two categories (see Table 4). Each of the categories contains a number
of factors influencing the right choice of the reward answers. For instance, the employees’
age is an internal individual reward factor. The age influences the reward target: Older
people are less likely to like team rewards and hence should be rewarded individually
(DeMatteo 1997). Further influences of the internal and external reward factors are
covered in the next sections.
The list of internal and external reward factors
is not complete. Although the modest
reward proponents propose the existence of influencing factors, it appears as if no one ever
has tried to gather a complete list. All reviewed literature only considers some of the
No reason could be identified for this. However, the fact that there are some
factors influencing the reward answers is sufficient for this thesis. The view, that some
reward factors influence the reward answers indicates that special project characteristics
might also influence the reward answers.
3.4.2.  Motivation Theories 
During the 20th century, different motivation theories originated focusing on
individual’s motivation. The theories were mostly developed by psychologists and are of a
general nature. They are usually not specifically designed for the “world of work” or even
rewarding employees (Furnham 1997:248). Academics and managers just apply the
theories to employees’ motivation and development of reward systems. This may lead to
different interpretations and different opinions on how rewards influence employees’
motivation (Furnham 1997). 
Herzberg’s two-factor theory, Taylorism, expectancy theories and reinforcement
theories were already mentioned in the previous sections. Herzberg’s theory, Taylorism,
and reinforcement theories have in common that they claim to be valid under any
circumstances and ignore employees’ individuality. The ignorance of the individuality of
employees is criticised by the modest reward proponents. An extensive amount of
literature exists, dealing with individuals’ personalities and characteristics. It is widely
accepted that individuals are distinguished by their perceptions, needs, and values
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